Statutes/By-Laws of IACS and Terms of Reference
Statute 1; Objectives of the Association
1.1 a) to promote studies of the cryosphere of Earth and other bodies of the Solar System and related physical processes
1.1 b) to encourage research on cryospheric sciences through collaboration and co-operation among individuals, institutions, and research programmes, both nationally and internationally
1.1 c) to provide opportunities for international discussion and publication of the results of research on cryospheric structures and processes
1.1 d) to promote education and public awareness about the cryosphere;
1.1 e) to facilitate the standardisation of measurements and the collection of data on cryospheric systems and the analysis, archiving and publication of such data;
1.1 f) to promote the scientific activities of any Permanent Service which may fall under IACS responsibility and scientific supervision.
Statute 2; Structure of the Association
2.1. The Association shall consist of a Bureau and other component bodies as specified in the By-laws of the Association.
- the elected officers of the Association (the Bureau)
- Correspondents to the Association that are appointed by the IUGG Adhering Body National Committees
- Delegates that are accredited by the IUGG Adhering Bodies for the purpose of attending Plenary Administrative Sessions
- Representatives that are designated by the Bureau as liaisons to the cryospheric scientific community in their countries
- all other persons engaging in cryospheric research or otherwise contributing to the objectives of the Association.
2.3.The work of the Association shall be directed by a Plenary Administrative Session which shall be convened at least once during each Assembly of IACS and attended by members of the Association. Votes from at least one-third of the delegates representing IUGG Adhering Bodies eligible to vote are required to validate a decision. Delegates not present may forward a vote on any specific question as described in Statute 2.5
2.4. The work of the association consists of matters that are scientific, administrative, and financial in character. Prior to a Plenary Administrative Session the President shall decide the character of each agenda item and whether the procedure of voting by correspondence applies.
2.4 a. On matters of scientific purpose, all scientific participants have a single vote.
2.4 b. On matters of administration, including election of officers, only delegates accredited by IUGG Adhering Bodies in regular member status (dues paid) may vote; each delegate has one vote and may represent only one Adhering Body.
2.4 c. On matters of finance, only delegates accredited by IUGG Adhering Bodies in regular member status (dues paid) may vote; each delegate has the number of votes corresponding to the Category of IUGG membership of the Adhering Body.
2.5. An IUGG Adhering Body eligible to vote that is not represented by a delegate at a Plenary Administrative Session may vote by correspondence, including post, fax, or electronic mail, on any voting matter provided that:
- the matter has been clearly defined in the final agenda distributed in advance to the members in accordance with the By-laws,
- the substance of the matter has not been changed, and
- the vote has been received by the Secretary General prior to the meeting.
2.6. Decisions on any voting matter, except for the modification of the Statutes, shall be determined by a simple majority of the votes cast. Simple majority shall be determined by the proportion of affirmative votes to the sum of the affirmative and negative votes, including correspondence votes, and excluding abstentions. If a tie should occur, the decision shall rest with the President.
2.7. The Plenary Administrative Session has the power to adopt and modify By-laws that include specification of the scientific components of the Association (Divisions).
2.8. The Bureau.
2.8 a. The Bureau shall consist of a President, the President-elect or immediate Past-President, three Vice-Presidents, the Secretary General, and the Heads of the Divisions. The immediate Past-President will remain a Bureau Member during the period between the end of his/her office and the election of a new President-Elect. In order to maintain continuity, the terms of office of the President, the President-Elect and the immediate Past-President are staggered. Thus the four-year term of the President is split, with the first two years in office having the immediate Past-President on the Bureau and with the last two years having the President-Elect on the Bureau together with the acting President. The President-elect will become President at the IACS Scientific Assembly approximately mid-period between IUGG General Assemblies.
2.8 b. Except for the resident President, all members of the Bureau shall be elected by the Plenary Administrative Session during the General Assembly of IUGG in accordance with the Statutes and By-laws.
2.8 c. In the event of any vacancy occurring in the membership of the Bureau, a person will be appointed to fill the vacancy by the remaining members of the Bureau until the next election. The eligibility for election of a person so appointed shall not be affected by such an appointment. If the vacancy is that of the President, the President-elect shall assume the office of President. If there is no President-Elect, then the Bureau shall appoint one of the three Vice-Presidents to act as President.
2.9 The Bureau may establish Standing Groups with specified terms of reference
2.10 The Bureau may nominate persons who have given outstanding service to IACS to the Plenary Administrative Sessions for recognition as “Honorary Members of IACS.”
2.11 The Association may create Joint Bodies with other IUGG Associations, components of other governmental and international scientific organisations such as the International Council for Science (ICSU) and organizations affiliated with the United Nations, to deal with topics of mutual interest, and may appoint appropriate leaders and representatives of the Association to these organizations. In dealing with other scientific organizations, IACS shall not commit the name of IUGG, or act on behalf of IUGG, unless prior approval has been secured from the IUGG Executive Committee.
Statute 3; Assemblies of IACS
3.1 An ordinary General Assembly of IACS shall normally be held in conjunction with each ordinary General Assembly of IUGG.
3.2 The interval between the end of one ordinary General Assembly and the end of the next one is, for the purposes of the Statutes, termed one Period.
3.3 A Scientific Assembly of IACS may be held between ordinary General Assemblies of IACS, in accordance with the IUGG By-laws.
3.4 An extraordinary General Assembly of IACS may be convened by the President with the approval of the Bureau, and must be convened at the request of not less than one-third of IUGG Adhering Bodies eligible to vote. Such an extraordinary General Assembly must be held no later than nine months after the request is received. An extraordinary General Assembly shall have the same powers and be subject to the same rules as an ordinary General Assembly.
3.5 Notice of the date and place of an ordinary General Assembly or a Scientific Assembly shall be sent by the Secretary General to the IACS Correspondents and Representatives at least nine months prior to that Assembly. The notice period for an extraordinary General Assembly shall be four months.
3.6 Between Assemblies, responsibility for the direction of the Association shall rest with the Bureau, which shall administer the affairs of the Association in accordance with these Statutes and By-laws and the decisions of the prior Plenary Administrative Session.
Statute 4. Dissolution of the Association
If the Association should be dissolved, its financial assets will revert to the Union to be used for the continuation of scientific and educational activities.
Statute 5; Languages
The present Statutes have been prepared in the official languages of IUGG. The English text shall take precedence if there is a question of interpretation.
Statute 6; Adoption and Modification of the Statutes
6.1 The Statutes of the Association must be approved by the Council of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at a General Assembly, and shall come into force at the close of the Council Meeting at that General Assembly.
6.2 A member of the IACS Bureau, an IACS Correspondent or a delegate to the IACS Plenary Administrative Session from an IUGG Adhering Body may propose a change to these Statutes. Any such proposal must reach the Secretary General at least six months prior to the announced date of the General Assembly at which it is to be considered. The Secretary General shall notify all IACS Correspondents and accredited delegates of any proposed change at least two months prior to the announced date of the General Assembly.
6.3. For adoption, modifications must be agreed by at least a two-thirds’ majority of the votes cast by accredited delegates at a Plenary Administrative Session held during a General Assembly, and further approved by the Council of the IUGG. A two-thirds majority shall be determined by the proportion of affirmative votes to the sum of the affirmative and negative votes, including correspondence votes, and excluding abstentions.
6.4 Modifications to these Statutes shall come into force at the close of the General Assembly at which they were adopted.
By-laws of the International Association of Cryospheric Sciences
By-law 1: Divisions
The scientific components of the Association shall be separated into Divisions as follows:
|Division I:||Snow and Avalanches|
|Division II:||Glaciers and Ice-sheets|
|Division III:||Sea Ice, Lake and River Ice|
|Division IV:||Cryosphere, Atmosphere and Climate|
|Division V:||Planetary and other Ices of the Solar System|
- The role of Divisions shall be to further the scientific objectives of the Association through co-ordination of appropriate scientific research, organisation of scientific meetings, and promotion of the exchange of information and data.
- Each Division shall be responsible for its role, structure, and mode of operation.
- Each Division shall be represented on the IACS Bureau by a person elected to be the Division Head.
- Divisions may establish working groups with specified terms of reference.
- The role and effectiveness of each Division shall be reviewed periodically by the Bureau.
By-law 2: IACS Administration
2.1 The Bureau shall meet at least twice at each Assembly, and must meet at least once more between ordinary General Assemblies.
2.2 The Bureau shall meet at the call of the President, who will set the agenda in consultation with the Secretary General.
2.3 The quorum for an IACS Bureau Meeting shall be a majority of the members but must include: at least three of the President; President-Elect or Past-President; the Secretary General; and one of the Vice-presidents.
2.4 The President may invite representatives of scientific bodies or individuals to attend a Bureau Meeting in an advisory capacity.
2.5 Electronic voting (e-voting) may be required in between Bureau Meetings. E-voting is a two-stage process: a discussion phase where Bureau Members openly discuss the issue, followed by a voting phase that is secret. The Secretary General or, in case of conflict of interest, either the President or the President-Elect or Past-President, counts the votes. The same quorum applies as for Bureau Meetings (see By-law 2.3). The discussion period and voting time should be kept as short as possible (one week each).
By-law 3: Officers
3.1 a. The President shall be elected for one Period, and may not be re-elected to the same office. In accordance with Statute 2.8a, the term of office begins approximately mid-period between IUGG General Assemblies, usually at the time of an IACS Scientific Assembly.
3.1 b. The duties of the President are
(i) to represent IACS in the IUGG Executive Committee and at other meetings, conferences, or functions where formal representation is requested or desirable;
(ii) to convene Plenary Administrative Sessions and meetings of the Bureau and to preside over these meetings;
(iii) to prepare and distribute the agenda of Bureau Meetings to Bureau members;
(iv) to submit a report on the work of the Association to a Plenary Administrative Session at each Assembly;
(v) to select the Chair of Standing Groups established according to Statute 2.9;
(vi) to select, on behalf of the Bureau, persons ‘ex officio’ who maintain liaison between the Bureau and other scientific bodies and programmes according to specified terms of reference.
3.1 c. If the President is not available, the President-Elect shall act on behalf of the President in accordance with the Statutes and By-laws. If there is no President-Elect, then the Bureau shall appoint one of the Vice-Presidents to act on behalf of the President in accordance with the Statutes and By-laws.
3.2 a. The Vice-Presidents shall be elected for one Period and may be re-elected for one period.
3.2 b. The duties of the Vice-Presidents are:
(i) to represent the interests of cryospheric scientists at-large;
(ii) to advise the Bureau on IACS activities;
(iii) to assist the President in furthering the objectives of the Association within IUGG and the International Scientific Community.
3.3 Secretary General
3.3 a. The Secretary General shall be elected for one period and may be re-elected for two successive periods.
3.3 b. The duties of the Secretary General are
(i) to assist the Bureau in the management of the administrative and scientific affairs of the Association, to attend to correspondence, and to maintain and preserve the records of the Association;
(ii) to arrange meetings of the Bureau, to assist the President in the preparation of the agenda for Bureau Meetings, and to prepare and distribute the minutes of these meetings;
(iii) to organise Assemblies according to the instructions of the Bureau, to prepare and arrange publication of the Programme of each Assembly,
(iv) to request and receive the names of accredited delegates for each Plenary Administrative Session; to prepare and distribute the agenda; to prepare ballots and arrange for counting of votes; and to prepare and distribute the minutes of each Session;
(v) to receive and take charge of such funds as may be allocated by IUGG to the Association, or as may be received from any other source; to disburse such funds in accordance with the decisions of Plenary Administrative Sessions or with the instructions of the Bureau; to keep account of all receipts and disbursements and to submit such account, audited by a qualified accountant, for approval by the Bureau and submission to the Plenary Administrative Session;
(vi) to maintain lists of IACS members for purposes of communication, including IUGG National Committee Correspondents, and IACS Representatives;
(vii) to publish an internal Association bulletin (such as IACS News) containing information of general interest to the Association;
(viii) to perform such other duties as may be assigned by the President or the Bureau.
3.3 c The Bureau may, at its discretion, appoint an Assistant Secretary General.
3.4 Heads of Divisions
3.4 a The Heads of Divisions shall serve for one period but may be re-elected for two more periods.
3.4 b The duties of the Heads of Divisions are:
(i) to promote the interests of their respective divisions through participation in symposia, conferences, workshops and other activities, which receive the approbation of the Bureau;
(ii) to select the Chair of any Working Group established by the Division according to By-law 1.5
(iii) to assist the Bureau in furthering the objectives of the Association in accordance with the Statutes and By-laws.
3.4 c The Bureau may, upon request from the Head of a Division and at its discretion, appoint a Deputy Head of Division.
3.5 No person who has served on the Bureau for four Periods shall be eligible for further election to any position on the IACS Bureau.
By-law 4: Nominations and Election of the Bureau
4.1 The Bureau shall establish a Nomination panel consisting of a Chair and not less than two other members at least ten months before an IUGG General Assembly. The Panel will receive and consider suggestions and shall prepare a list of candidates for each office, seeking to achieve reasonable balance in their geographical and professional distribution. Members of the Bureau may not be appointed to the Nominating Committee.
4.2 At least nine months before an IUGG General Assembly, the Secretary General shall solicit nominations for officers that must be received by the Chair of the Nomination panel not later than six months before the General Assembly. Nominees for the position of President-Elect, but not for the other positions, must be from countries represented by IUGG Adhering Bodies in regular status (dues paid).
4.3 Each nomination for office must include a résumé of the candidate’s qualifications relevant to the office for which the candidate is nominated. A signed statement of the candidate’s willingness to stand for office must also be provided. The nomination shall not be considered without submission of the résumé and consent form.
4.4 A person may be a candidate for more than one office, except for President-Elect, who may not be a candidate for any other office of the Association.
4.5 The list of candidates shall normally contain more than one name for each office. The Chair of the Nomination panel shall distribute the list to the accredited delegates to the Plenary Administrative Session at least three months before an IUGG General Assembly. The list submitted for voting shall contain both the candidates proposed by the Nomination Panel and the names of all other nominees submitted.
4.6 Voting for the election of Bureau Officers shall be by secret ballot. The President shall select two electoral officers from among the participants at the Plenary Administrative Session to oversee and compile the votes. The electoral officers shall not be members of the Bureau or members of the Nominating Committee nor candidates for the election.
4.7 Candidates who obtain a simple majority of votes shall be elected. If no candidate receives a majority of votes for a specific office, the two candidates receiving the most votes shall be named and a second vote shall be held. In the case of a tie in the second round the current President shall decide.
By-law 5: Plenary Administrative Sessions
5.1 a. Plenary Administrative Sessions shall be open to all scientific participants at IACS Assemblies and to the general public.
5.1 b. Participants who are accredited by IUGG Adhering Bodies may vote on administrative and financial issues in accordance with the Statutes and By-laws. All other participants may have voice but may vote only on scientific issues.
5.1 c. An accredited delegate may designate another participant from that country to be his or her representative at all or part of a Plenary Administrative Session provided that the Secretary General is informed in writing prior to the Plenary Administrative Session at which the designated representative is to act.
5.1 d. A session attendee who is not a participant at the Assembly shall have voice only with permission of the President.
5.1 e. The President may, on his or her initiative or at the request of an accredited delegate, invite individuals such as representatives of relevant scientific bodies to attend a Plenary Administrative Session in an advisory capacity.
5.2 a. A provisional agenda for a Plenary Administrative Session shall be prepared by the Secretary General and circulated to IACS accredited delegates, Correspondents and Representatives at least two months prior to the opening of an Assembly.
5.2 b. The provisional agenda shall include all items submitted by IACS accredited delegates for discussion at the Plenary Administrative Session, together with questions placed on the provisional agenda by the Bureau. Additional agenda items, for which notice has not thus been given, may only be discussed with the consent of the voting members of the Plenary Administrative Session.
By-law 6: Modifications to the By-laws
The By-laws may be modified by a simple majority of votes cast at a Plenary Administrative Session, held during a General Assembly, according to Statute 6.
Glossary: IACS Statutes and By-laws
Accredited Delegate: the Delegate appointed to attend a Plenary Administrative Session of the IACS Assembly by the National Committee of an IUGG Adhering Body. An accredited delegate may vote on all IACS scientific matters and on IACS administrative and financial matters if the IUGG dues of the Adhering Body are paid.
Adhering Body: As defined in IUGG Statute 4a, a single body is any country that represents the geodetic and geophysical activities of that country. Under extraordinary circumstances, there may be more than one Adhering Body for a country. Each Adhering Body forms a Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics hereafter known as an IUGG National Committee (IUGG By-law 4).
Assembly: an ordinary General Assembly, an extraordinary General Assembly, or a Scientific Assembly of IACS.
(The) Association: IACS
(The) Bureau: the officers elected by a Plenary Administrative Session of an IACS Assembly.
(The) By-laws: the By-laws of IACS.
Correspondent: the person named by an IUGG Adhering Body National Committee to serve as a liaison between the National Committee and IACS.
Divisions: The primary scientific components of IACS, named in By-law 1.
Extraordinary General Assembly: a General Assembly of IACS called by the President according to Statute 3.4
General Assembly (of IACS): an ordinary General Assembly or an extraordinary General Assembly of IACS.
IACS: the International Association of Cryospheric Sciences.
ICSU: the International Council for Science (previously called the International Council of Scientific Unions).
IUGG: the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.
Nominating Panel: the committee appointed by the Bureau to solicit candidates and provide nominations for the election of Bureau Officers to the Plenary Administrative Assembly.
Ordinary General Assembly (of IACS): an Assembly of IACS normally held in conjunction with an ordinary General Assembly of IUGG (i.e., every 4 years).
Period: the interval between the end of one ordinary General Assembly of IACS and the end of the next ordinary General Assembly of IACS.
Plenary Administrative Session: a formal meeting of IACS Bureau, accredited delegates, and bone-fide scientific participants at IACS Assemblies. It is open to the public.
Representatives: scientists that are designated by the Bureau as liaisons to the cryospheric scientific community in their countries
Scientific Assembly (of IACS): an Assembly of IACS normally held between ordinary General Assemblies.
(The) Statutes: the Statutes of IACS.
Drafted by the IACS Bureau during its meeting in Vienna, Austria, on April 12 and 13, 2008, and finalized after discussion among Bureau members via electronic mail on May 23, 2008
The Statutes of the International Association of Cryospheric Sciences, IACS, define ‘Working Groups’ and ‘Standing Groups’. The Association wishes to attract both young and established members of the international cryospheric community to contribute to the progress of snow and ice sciences through initiating and participating in Working and Standing Groups. Proposals from any person or group active in the cryospheric sciences, and who wish to pursue innovative research through an IACS Working or Standing Group, are welcome at any time and will be considered by the IACS Bureau in a timely manner.
IACS Working Groups
Working Groups address scientific problems of the cryosphere that are timely and well constrained. Working Groups shall have explicit aims, objectives, milestones and deliverables. They should be international in composition. They shall define the instruments, for example workshops and conferences, which they will use to achieve their aims and objectives. Working Groups will normally be limited to up to four years duration. They may be renewed, with suitable justification, for up to a further four years in exceptional circumstances. Working Groups report annually to the Bureau through the
appropriate IACS Head of Division.
IACS Standing Groups
Standing Groups address scientific problems of the cryosphere that require medium- to long-term reflection. Standing Groups shall have well considered aims, objectives, milestones and deliverables. They should be international in composition. Standing Group activities could include, for example, monitoring, databasing, and dissemination of cryospheric information. Standing Groups will normally have a life-time of at least eight years. They may be renewed, with suitable justification, for further periods of eight years. Standing Groups report annually to the Bureau through the appropriate IACS Vice- President or other Bureau member and may also be subject to external expert evaluation at appropriate intervals.
Support for IACS Working and Standing Groups includes:
· Formal IACS endorsement of activity.
· Representation on IACS web pages.
· Funding applications to IUGG and ICSU grant programmes that require formal
· Formal letters of support for funding applications to national and international
· The possibility of applying for IACS seed money of up to US$1,500 per year, subject
to a brief, suitable case for support (which may be submitted at the time of initial
application for Working or Standing Group status).
The IACS Bureau may also approve, from time to time, Joint Bodies to carry out a joint venture between another international organization, or organizations, and an IACS Working Group, an IACS Standing Group or a similar form of activity (or vice versa). The justification for such joint activities should be similar to that for IACS groups. The Bureau may also approve other forms of IACS joint activity, where an IACS representative is appointed by the Bureau in a bilateral or multilateral initiative with another international organization or organizations.